No. Kate “Ma” Barker was never arrested.
Although Mrs. Barker (the former Arizona Donnie Clark) saw three of her four sons serve in Alcatraz, Kansas State Penitentiary at Lansing, and Leavenworth, she stayed behind the scenes of the crimes.
Ma Barker and her son Freddie were killed on January 16, 1935, in a 45-minute gunfight with FBI agents.
Her other sons were Arthur (“Doc”), Herman, and Lloyd.