After serving in the Spanish-American War, New Jersey nurse Clara Maass volunteered in 1901 to take part in yellow fever experiments in Cuba.
Dr. Walter Reed designed the experiments to see whether a mild case of the disease would render people immune.
Maass allowed herself to be bitten twice by infected mosquitoes. She developed not a mild case but a mortal one that killed her at age 25.
Her sacrifice is remembered in the name of the Clara Maass Memorial Hospital in New Jersey.